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1. Assess and record respiratory rate and depth at least every 4 hours.
👨‍⚕️The average rate of respiration for adults is 10 to 20 B/M. while in childs is 20 to 30 B/M.
It is important to take action when there is an alteration in breathing patterns to detect early signs of compromise on the respiratory system.

2. 👨‍⚕️Assess ABG levels according to facility policy.
This monitors oxygenation and ventilation status. See our Tic-Tac-Toe guide on analyzing ABGs

3. 👨‍⚕️Observe breathing patterns.
Unusual breathing patterns may imply an underlying disease process or dysfunction. Cheyne-Stokes respiration signifies bilateral dysfunction in the deep cerebral or diencephalon related to brain injury or metabolic abnormalities.

Apneusis🩺 and ataxic breathing are related to the failure of the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla. Rates and depths of breathing patterns include:

Temporary cessation of breathing, especially during sleep.
Deep, gasping inspiration with a pause at full inspiration followed by a brief, insufficient release.
👨‍⚕️Ataxic patterns
Complete irregularity of breathing with irregular pauses and increasing periods of apnea.
👨‍⚕️Biot’s respiration
Groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea (10 to 60 seconds).
Respirations fall below 12 breaths per minute, means lower breathing depending on the age of the patient.
👨‍⚕️Cheyne-Stokes respiration
Progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in apnea. 🌡️The pattern repeats, with each cycle usually taking 30 seconds to 2 minutes.
Normal, good, unlabored ventilation, sometimes known as quiet breathing or resting, respiratory rate
Increased rate and depth of breathing
Kussmaul’s respirations
Deep respirations with fast, normal, or slow rate associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure.
Rapid, shallow breathing, with more than 24 to above breaths per minute depending on how it suffers👨‍⚕️🌡️💉✍️

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